Scientific Editing Services – Substantive, Copyediting, Journal Formatting


We edit and format journal articles, responses to reviewers, cover letters, conference abstracts, technical reports, theses and dissertations, book chapters, lectures, and more, in subject areas across the biological sciences.

Editing Services

Substantive editing includes all aspects of copyediting and also delivers the following:

  • Personalized feedback and writing advice
  • Suggestions about how and where to add content to improve the manuscript
  • Rewriting of awkward, wordy, or unclear sections of text
  • Rearrangement of text to improve clarity and flow
  • Reworking of text to ensure that material is included in the appropriate sections
  • Suggested improvements for figures and tables
  • Suggestions for running titles and keywords, if required
  • Word-count reduction, if requested or required

Copyediting involves correcting errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, scientific usage (e.g., units, formatting, abbreviations), tense, and syntax. Manuscripts will be corrected for US or UK English usage as required.

Copyediting is appropriate for manuscripts that require language polishing, as in preparation of a final draft for submission. Copyediting is not appropriate for manuscripts that require rewriting, reorganizing, or reduction in word count.

Formatting Services

Journal formatting ensures that the main text and table and figure headings are formatted according to the requirements of your target journal or publisher.  This includes:

  • Margins and line spacing/numbering
  • Title page (word limits, capitalization, author information)
  • Abstract (if required, we will reduce the word count by up to 25%)
  • Key words
  • Order of text sections
  • Section headings
  • In-text citations  (order and punctuation)
  • Style/notation (e.g., abbreviations, numbers, units)

Formatting of table and figure headings ensures correct use of abbreviations, style, notation, and punctuation. We will also provide feedback on figure and table contents and let you know if corrections are required. Table contents will be edited if included in the word count.

This service includes formatting all reference data items according to the requirements of the specified target journal. This includes:

  • Use of numeric or name/date citation style
  • Correct order of references in the reference list (numeric or alphabetical)
  • Correct placement, spacing, and punctuation of author initials
  • Use of abbreviated journal names in the reference list, if required
  • Correct punctuation and spacing of journal volume and page numbers
  • Correct formatting of non-journal references (e.g., books, book chapters, technical reports, dissertations, software).

References will be edited for spelling and for correct use of italics, capitalization, and en dashes. We will cross check and make sure that all references cited in the text appear in the reference list and that all references in the list are cited in the text.

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